The adrenal cortex secretes three basic groups of hormones: Mineralocorticoids, glucocorticoids and sex steroid hormones. Their mechanism of action is mainly connected with maintenance of salt balance, metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins, fats, and also with host protective mechanisms. The sex steroids have ancillary role.
Analysis of reproductive function consists of estimation of level of sex and hypophysis hormones. The hormones of hypophysis are responsible for regulation of synthesis of sex hormones. Sex hormones are produced by the sex glands and adrenal cortex. They can be divided into three groups: androgens (testosterone), estrogens (estradiol) and gestogens (progesterone). The hormones of hypophysis are luteinizing hormone (LH), follicles-stimulating hormone (FSH) and prolactin.
The purpose of prenatal screening is inspection of pregnant women for estimation of health’s state of fetus about absence of congenital
defects. They are Down’s syndrome (trisomy in 21 steam of chromosomes), Edwards’s syndrome (trisomy in 18 steam of chromosomes) and Neural Tube Defects.
Tumor markers are complete protein substances which are produced by the body in response to cancer growth or by the cancer tissue itself. Some
tumor markers are specific, while others are seen in several cancer types.
Thyroid gland’s hormones participate in all processes of organism, regulate the metabolism, synthesis of vitamins (vitamin A in the liver) and also take part in realizationof other hormones’ function in all organism. Thyroid gland diseases are accompanied both decrease and increase of its function.